- 1 How is AM modulation index calculated?
- 2 How does modulation index calculate AM and FM?
- 3 What is modulation index for FM modulation?
- 4 How is FM signal bandwidth calculated?
- 5 What is the maximum modulation index?
- 6 What is the unit of modulation index?
- 7 When modulation index is 1 then what is it called?
- 8 What is difference between AM and FM?
- 9 What are the disadvantages of FM system?
- 10 Can modulation index be greater than 1?
- 11 How can I make FM signal?
- 12 How does FM demodulator work?
- 13 What is Carson’s formula?
- 14 What is bandwidth formula?
- 15 What is bandwidth of FM?
How is AM modulation index calculated?
In AM schemes, the modulation index refers to the amplitude ratio of the modulating signal to the carrier signal. With the help of Fast-Fourier-Transforms (FFT), the modulation index can be obtained by measuring the sideband amplitude and the carrier amplitude.
How does modulation index calculate AM and FM?
The modulation index is ratio of modulating signal voltage(Vm) to the carrier voltage(Vc). The modulation index equation is as follows. m = Vm/Vc. The modulation index should be a number between 0 and 1. When m is greater than 1, severe distortion results into the modulated waveform.
What is modulation index for FM modulation?
The modulation index of FM is defined as the ratio of the frequency deviation of the carrier to the frequency of the modulating signal. mf = Modulation Index of FM = ∆f/fm.
How is FM signal bandwidth calculated?
Commercial FM signals use a peak frequency deviation of ∆f = 75 kHz and a maximum baseband message frequency of fm = 15 kHz. Carson’s rule estimates the FM signal bandwidth as BT = 2(75 + 15) = 180 kHz which is six times the 30 kHz bandwidth that would be required for AM modulation.
What is the maximum modulation index?
A modulation index of 1 is the maximum level of modulation that can normally be applied and occurs when the envelope increases by a factor of 1, i.e. twice the steady state value, and falls to zero.
What is the unit of modulation index?
The FM modulation index is equal to the ratio of the frequency deviation to the modulating frequency. From the formula and definition of the modulation index, it can be seen that there is no term that includes the carrier frequency and this means that it is totally independent of the carrier frequency.
When modulation index is 1 then what is it called?
Modulation index is the measure of extent to which the parameter of the carrier is varied in accordance with the modulating signal. If modulation index is greater than 1, or the modulation percentage is more than 100%, it is called over modulation.
What is difference between AM and FM?
In AM, a radio wave known as the “carrier” or “carrier wave” is modulated in amplitude by the signal that is to be transmitted. In FM, a radio wave known as the “carrier” or “carrier wave” is modulated in frequency by the signal that is to be transmitted. The amplitude and phase remain the same.
What are the disadvantages of FM system?
Disadvantages of FM: Much more Bandwidth (as much as 20 times as much). Frequency Modulation
- Improved signal to noise ratio (about 25dB) w.r.t. to man made interference.
- Smaller geographical interference between neighboring stations.
- Less radiated power.
- Well defined service areas for given transmitter power.
Can modulation index be greater than 1?
If the modulation index is greater than 1, then we call this condition over modulation. In such cases, the baseband signal is not preserved in the envelope of the AM signal and therefore, the recovered signal is distorted at the output of the receiver.
How can I make FM signal?
FM signals can be generated either by using direct frequency modulation, which is achieved by inputting a message directly into a voltage-controlled oscillator, or by using indirect frequency modulation, which is achieved by integrating a message signal to generate a phase-modulated signal, which is then used to
How does FM demodulator work?
In any radio that is designed to receive frequency modulated signals there is some form of FM demodulator or detector. This circuit takes in frequency modulated RF signals and takes the modulation from the signal to output only the modulation that had been applied at the transmitter.
What is Carson’s formula?
Note 1: The Carson bandwidth rule is expressed by the relation CBR = 2( f + f m) where CBR is the bandwidth requirement, f is the carrier peak deviation frequency, and f m is the highest modulating frequency.
What is bandwidth formula?
Bandwidth is measured between the 0.707 current amplitude points. The 0.707 current points correspond to the half power points since P = I2R, (0.707)2 = (0.5). Bandwidth, Δf is measured between the 70.7% amplitude points of series resonant circuit.
What is bandwidth of FM?
FM radio uses frequency modulation, of course. The frequency band for FM radio is about 88 to 108 MHz. The information signal is music and voice which falls in the audio spectrum. If FM transmitters use a maximum modulation index of about 5.0, so the resulting bandwidth is 180 kHz (roughly 0.2 MHz).